Welcome to our second themed edition of The Cyber Defense Review (CDR). Our inaugural themed edition is focused on information operations (IO) and information warfare (IW). IO and IW are not new constructs within the history of conflict. However, the exponential adoption and weaponization of social media technologies are rapidly changing the character of modern conflict. Soon digitally networked technologies known as the Internet of Things (IoT) unprecedented influence of targeted populations will widely come online and supercharge the precision and reach of social media to enable these powerful information technologies are enabling our adversaries to achieve strategic goals and objectives that avoid our military strengths within the spaces short of armed conflict. As evidenced in 21st century conflicts thus far, the ubiquitous and amplifying effects of Information Age technologies are being used by our adversaries in ways that create a symphony of chaos, confusion, and polarization of targeted populations.